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#楼主# 2019-3-14

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本帖最后由 Forgivenbear 于 2019-3-14 00:22 编辑

科班学数学的 有空放点入门的东西吧 反正自己也在学
图和点的方面可能存在问题
代码都是对的 自己run一下就好


---title: "R Programming Basics"author: ''output:  html_document:    toc: yes  pdf_document: null  pdf_presentation: null  slidy_presentation:    css: slidy.css    widescreen: yes  word_document: null---## Outline- R basics- Data Structures# R basics## Using R as a calculatorOpen the Console window in Rstudio, or invoke R in stand alone modeYou will see the prompt sign >Enter a numerical expression on the line, and R will evaluate itand return the result, with a label, on the next line.A variety of mathematical and logical operators and functions areavailable. Commonly used operators are +,-,*,/,^ (exponentiation),= (assignment), <- (another assignment operator), -> (yet anotherassignment operator).  Common builtin functions are log (log base e),log10 (log base 10), exp (exponential function), sqrt.  Common constantsused in mathematical expressions are $\pi$ and $e$.  Here are someexamples:```{r}1+22*32^3log(10)log10(10)exp(1)```Typically we want to assign values to variables, and then work on thevariables.  For example, suppose that $x$ denotes temperature indegrees Celsius.  By definition, the temperature in degrees Farenheit is$32+(5/9) x$.  Suppose that $x=20$.  The following assigns 20 to $x$,then calculates $32+(5/9)x$. There are 3 expressions.  The first hasan error.  The third assigns the Farenheit temperature to $y$, then prints $y$.```{r}x=20#32+(5/9)x32+(5/9)*xy=32+(5/9)*xy```As with all computer programs, there is a precedence to evaluationof operators.  The precedence rules for R are listed athttp://stat.ethz.ch/R-manual/R-d ... /html/Syntax.htmlIt worthwhile to remember that exponential has precedence overunary $+/-$, has precedence over multiplication/division, has precedence over addition/subtraction, has precedence over logical operations such as and/or/!,    has precedence over the assignment operations <-, =, ->.If two operators have equal precedence, then evaluation is fromleft to right.Most importantly, brackets can be used to override operator predence, and are highly recommended if you are in doubt.Examples:```{r}1+3*2  #multiplication is evaluated before addition.(1+3)*2 #the expression inside brackets is evaluated before multiplication12/3/2  #divisions have same precedence, so evaluation is left to right12/(3/2) #expression is brackets is evaluated first.-3^2  #exponention has precedence over unary minus(-3)^2 ```For a slightly more complicated example, suppose that we wantto evaluate the standard normal density function$$\phi(x)=\frac{e^{-.5 x^2}}{\sqrt{2 \pi}}$$ when $x=2$.```{r}x=2phix=exp(-.5*x^2)/sqrt(2*pi)phix```Just to check the result, evaluate the builtin function "dnorm", whichreturns the value of the normal density function.```{r}dnorm(2)```##  Different methods of assigning values to variables.- "<-" (recommended by R developers.)```{r}a <- "character strings are delineated by quote marks"print(a)```- "=" also works```{r}c = 10 d = 11print(c+d)``````{r}"hi" -> bprint(b)```## Data types: numeric, logical, character - numeric data```{r}num = 100num + 1```Numeric values can be integers, double precision real numbers, or complexvalued numbers.  We won't deal with complex numbers in this course.One can convert integers to double precision, round double precision numbersto a specified number of decimal points, truncate (throw away the decimalpart of real numbers).  Here are a few examples.```{r}a=1is.integer(a) #is a an integeris.double(a) #is a a double precision real numberb=1.237b1=round(b,1); b  #note  multiple commands can be entered on same line using ;bt=trunc(b)is.integer(bt)bi=as.integer(trunc(b)); bi;  is.integer(bi)bi2=as.integer(b); c(b,bi2) #I've concatenated b and bi2```As is typical with computer languages, if a numeric expression includesdifferent modes, then all variables/values in the expression will beconverted to the highest mode prior to evaluation.  For example,when adding an integer to a double precision, the result will be doubleprecision.```{r}a=1.234; is.double(a)b=as.integer(3)s=a+bis.double(s)```  - character data```{r}chr = "abc"; chrchr2 = "123"; print(chr2)cat(chr,chr2)```  - logical data    + TRUE or T represents 1    + FALSE or F represents 0```{r}l1 <- TRUEl1l2 <- 0 < 1 #will be TRUE if 0 < 1l21<00<11+TRUE  ```Note from the above expression, that TRUE will evaluate to 1 ina numerical expression (and False will evaluate to 0).  - factor dataFactors are categorical data.  The only thing relevant for a factorvariable is that values are different from one another,but  not what theactual values are. ```{r}lv = c("good","bad" , "bad", "good") #elements of lv are character datalvlvf = factor(lv, levels = c("bad","good")) #lvf is now a factor variable#the only thing relevant for lvf is that it has two different values,#the acutal values are meaningless for factorslvf```  - make an ordered factorAn ordered factor is a bit different.  In this case "bad", whichcomes first in the "levels" statement, is considered to be less thangood. Seems a bit strange at first, but can be useful in some contexts.```{r}lvf2 = factor(lv, order=T, levels = c("bad","good"))lvf2```# Data Structures----------- Vector- Matrix- Data Frame- List- Array## vectorsA vector has one dimension.  All elements in a vector need to be same data type  - creating a vector of successive numbers from 2 through 9```{r}a = 2:9  length(a)is.integer(a)```  - creating a vector using the "seq" command```{r}sq = seq(0, 100, by=10)print(sq)seq(0.1, 2, by=0.3)```-  the "combine" command "c" is used to create vectorsb = c(1, 3.2, 4.5, 10, 11.6123)b```  - create a vector of character strings```{r}chVec = c("vector","is","a","this")chVecis.vector(chVec)is.character(chVec)```  -  create a vector of logical values```{r}logicVec = c(TRUE,TRUE,FALSE,TRUE,FALSE)logicVecis.logical(logicVec)```### indexing/subsetting a vector```{r}chVec[3] # the 3rd element of chVecchVec[1:2] # the first 2 elements of chVecchVec[c(4,2,3,1)] # rearrange the elements of chVecb=-1*c(1:4);b # note how the multiplication works elementwiseb[2:4]b[c(1,3,4)]b[-c(1,2)] # drop the first two elements of b```## matrices A matrix is a rectangular array of elements having two dimensions. All elements of a matrix  must be same data type.#### Examples```{r}m = matrix(1:12,nrow=4,ncol=3); m #by default, elements are entered columnwiseis.matrix(m)m2=matrix(1:12,byrow=T,ncol=3);m2 #elements are entered rowwisem3=matrix(1:12,byrow=T,nrow=4);m3```### indexing/subsetting a matrix```{r}m[3,2] # element at 3rd row, 2nd columm[2,] # the 2nd rowm[,2:3] # the 2nd,3rd columnsm[2:4,c(1,3)] #second through 4th rows, columns 1 and 3```### combining matrices using "rbind" or "cbind"  ```{r}  rbind(m,m) # joins matrices over rows.  #The matrices must have the same number of columns.cbind(m,m) # joins matrices over columns.  #The matrices must have same number of rows.```** Matrix Calculations:**  The transpose operation "t"  exchangesmatrix rows and columns.  It is useful when writing a matrix toa file outside of R, as will be seen later.  "solve" finds the inverseof a matrix, and the determinant is found using "det"."*" multiplies two matrices elementwise, and "%*%" carries out matrixmultiplication.```{r}m = matrix(c(3,2,-2,2,5,2,2,8,4),3,3) # create a square matrixmt(m) # transposesolve(m) # inversedet(m)  # determinant## * and %*% are differentm * mm %*% m # this is the matrix multiplication !!round(m %*% solve(m),4) #verifies that solve(m) gives the inverse of m```### *Data frames*Like a matrix, a data frame is a rectangular data structure, consistingof a number of columns of equal length.  Unlike a matrix, the data in the columns may be of different types.More precisely, a data frame is a particular type of list (see below)in which all list components are vectors, and each of the vectors isof the same length.```{r}# Example: make a small data framerm(list=ls()) #remove all objects to clean up the work spacels()subjectno=c(1:8)#enter some data for first and last name, agefirstname=c("Dick","Jane","","Jian","jing","Li","John","Li")lastname=c("Tracy","Doe","Smith","Yuan","Xian","Li","Doe","")age=sample(c(18:35),8) #assign random ages from 18 through 35data=data.frame(subject=subjectno,firstname=firstname,      surname=lastname,age=age) #make the data framerm("subjectno","firstname","lastname","age")ls()datasummary(data)2*data```## Other data structures** Array:** Arrays can have an arbitrary number of dimensions.  Avector is an array with 1 dimension. A matrix is an array with 2 dimensions.  We will NOT be using Arrays other than vectors and matrices in Stat2450.```{r}array(1:6) # a vectorarray(1:6,dim=c(2,3)) # a matrix with 2 rows, 3 columnsarray(1:24, dim=c(2,3,4)) # 3 dimensionsarray(1:24, dim=c(2,3,4))[1,,] ```** Lists:**  The list is the most complex data structure in R. A list gathersa variety of objects under one name. The general syntax for a list is list(name1 = object1, name2 = object2,...)Other than data frames, we will not be using lists in Stat2450.```{r}testList =  list(n = c(2, 3, 5),                char = c("aa", "bb", "cc", "dd", "ee"),                bool = c(TRUE, FALSE, TRUE, FALSE),                m = matrix(1:9,3,3),                alist = list(name=c("a","b"),gender=c("male","female")))testListtestList[[5]]testList[["m"]]testList$char```# Importing and Exporting data from outside of R## Two commonly used procedures to read data from an externalfile are *read.csv*, and *scan*.  **read.csv** reads a comma delimited excel file. (**read.table** is identicalto *read.csv* except for the default values of some of the input arguments.)```{r }autoData = read.csv("http://www-bcf.usc.edu/~gareth/ISL/Auto.csv",   header=T,quote="")head(autoData)```**scan** scans a file, row by row, and returns the contents of the fileas a single vector.  If the file contains only numeric data, this givesa numeric vector.If the file contains a mix of numeric and character data, the resultis a character vector.  Have a look at http://bsmith.mathstat.dal.ca/stat2450/Data/fish.txt and fishnoheader.txtat the same address, in a web browser, or in an editor, in order tosee what the file contents actually look like.```{r}data1=scan("http://bsmith.mathstat.dal.ca/stat2450/Data/fish.txt",what="character")data2=scan("http://bsmith.mathstat.dal.ca/stat2450/Data/fishnoheader.txt")data1[1:5]data2[1:5]fishm=matrix(data2,byrow=T,ncol=3) #need to know the number of columnsage=fishm[,1]; temperature=fishm[,2]; length=fishm[,3]ls()```## Use **write.table** to save a data frame.The following example makes a dataframe with the variablesAge, Temp and Length, then uses *write.table* to save that data toa file named "myfishdata.txt".  Look at the file using a text editor outsideof R and Rstudio to see what the contents of the file actually look like.```{r}myfishdata=data.frame(Age=age,Temp=temperature, Length=length)head(myfishdata)myfishdata1.txt=write.table(myfishdata,file="myfishdata1.txt")```## **write** can be used to save a matrix.The following example writes the content of the matrix *fishm*to a file *myfishdata2.txt*.  Note that the matrix must betransposed prior to writing.  (You can look at the file outside of R/Rstudioto see what the file really looks like, and see what happens if youdon't transpose the matrix prior to writing it to a file.)```{r}write(t(fishm),file="fishdata2.txt",ncol=3) #specify number of columns```###  You can enter or edit small data sets withing R using the **fix()** or **edit()** commands inside those environments.  This may be more convenient that entering the data to a file outside of R and then inputting with *scan* or *read.csv*.```{r eval=F}students = data.frame(name=character(),age=numeric(),grade=numeric(),stringsAsFactors = F)edit(students)```# getting help in RIf you're using Rstudio, explore the **help** pane of the lower right window.Use **help.start** to start up the help system in a graphical interface.Use the **help** function to get info on a particular function.```{r eval=F}help(functionName) or ?functionName  ```e.g. help page for fitting linear models function `lm()````{r eval=F}?lm```Use **help.search** to get help documentation for a given character string.```{r eval=F} help.search(string) or ??string```e.g. find the functions that fit linear models```{r eval=F}?? "linear models"```Use **apropos** to list all functions that contain a particularcharacter string.```{r eval=F}apropos("str", mode = "function")```e.g. list all the functions whose name contains "plot"```{r}apropos("plot", mode="function")```If you are using RStudio, the *Console* window has command completion.This is very useful, and can help you overwriting the names of built infunctions and commands.# The workspaceThe workspace is your current R working environment.  Use **ls** tolist the objects in the current workspace, ```{r}ls() ## list all the variables in the workplace```If you're using RStudio, the objects in the workspace are included inthe *Environment* tab of the upper right window.Use **rm** to remove one or more objects from the workspace```{r eval=F}rm(variableName)rm(a)a```To completely clear the workspace, ```{r}rm(list=ls()) # clear the environment;```(It's a good habit to put this at top of your script)# Working DirectoryWhen reading or writing files to a specific location, it is convenient not to have to use the absolue pathname.Use **getwd** to show the current working directory:```{r eval=F}getwd()```Use **setwd** to change the working directory:```{r eval=F}setwd("newDirectory")```In RStudio, *setwd* can be accessed from the *Session* menu.```{r eval=T}setwd("~")getwd()```# CommentsA comment is a readable explanation or annotation in the source code.  Goodprogramming practice calls for extensive use of comments in complicatedprograms, so that you can understand what your code is doing at a later date.For a one line comment, add a "#" before the comment material, as hasbeen done in many of the examples above.# Packages## R packages are collections of functions and data sets developed by the R community. Use **install.packages("packageName")** to install the named package.```{r eval = F}install.packages("ISLR")```If you are using Rstudio, this is accessed through the *Tools* dropdownmenu.## Load packageTo load a package in an R session, use **library**  or *require*.```{r eval=F}library("ISLR")```
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纯白小白 发表于 2019-3-15 13:24:57
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